SRI KRISHNA STUTI (Part 1) - INTRODUCTION
Bhagavad rAmAnuja muni, known as yatirAjA, is like Trivikrama in that he conquered the 3 worlds with his unassailable philosophy of Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. The nectar of his lotus feet manifested in the form of Acharya Nampillai whose Eedu vyAkhyAnam can be compared to the Ganga flowing from the lotus feet of sriman nArAyaNa. Just as Shiva bore the Ganga on his head, the Eedu vyAkhyAnam reached Swami Manavala Mamunigal, the King of SattvikAs, who imparted its sweet meanings in a manner that can be understood by all AstikAs. Just as Bhagiratha performed a penance to bring the Ganga to this world, my Acharyas like srI PBA Swami and srI rangarAjAchAriar, worshipped Swami manavAla mAmunigal and distributed the meanings of Eedu to the laypersons such as myself. With their blessings, I write now.
"stavyaH" -- sarvaiH stUyate na stotA kasyacit iti stavyaH|
[stavyaH is one who is prayed to/worshiped by one and all, is not the worshipper of anyone.]
The above is the explanation given by Shankara for the name “stavyaH” in his Vishnu Sahasranama Bhashya. Indeed other than Himself, for example in the case of Shri Rama who worshipped His kuladevata shrI rangashAyI, Lord Vishnu worships none else.
The HarivamSham contains prayers of Krishna to, supposedly pArvati pati rudradeva - who appeared in front of him with his consort Uma and the gaNas – for a boon of victory. This is an explanation of the Stuti. Since nIlakaNtha bhAshyam on this section is very shallow and even erroneous at times, it required a detailed explanation.
In reality, the purANas say that pArvati pati had asked for a boon from Vishnu that in one of his avatArAs, Vishnu would worship him (Shiva) for boons so that he (Shiva) would command respect in the world. The gracious bhagavAn nArAyaNa, who fulfills the wishes of his devotees, agreed.
Of course, despite agreeing, bhagavAn will never purposefully utter a lie or mislead or do anything contradictory to shAstra out of his own will (unless it is Buddha avatAram where his task was to mislead the asurAs). So, when he decided to fulfil the boon, he naturally offered the prayers to the antaryAmin of Rudra, which is himself.
The Garuda purAnA says that pArvati pati rudradeva is in the penultimate stage of bhakti yOga (unceasing meditation with love and devotion on sriman nArAaNa), called as “prajna” in the mAndukya Upanishad and which his presided by the vyUha known as Sankarshana.
The purAnA further states that pArvati pati rudra will eventually progress to the 4th state presided by vAsudeva, which is bhagavad sAkshAtkAram and instant moksha prApti, ie, srI vaikunta.
So, since he is in the stage presided by Sankarshana, it follows that he is always meditating on Sankarshana’s guNams of balam and jnAnam. And the most perceptible manifestation of an amSham of sankarshana was srI Lakshmi narasimha (as per Vishnu purAnA). SrI narasimha bhagavAn exhibited both guNams in that he was omniscient to understand the needs of prahlAda (jnAna guNam) and had the strength to destroy hiranyakasipu (balam).
Thus, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati rudradeva is narasimha. The sastrAs say that the antaryAmin manifests in a form that is the desired form of the yOgI in meditation. As pArvatipati rudra is meditating on narasimhA, his antaryAMin is narasimha rUpi. pArvati pati rudradeva as Ahirbudhnya worshipped srI narasimhA with mantra rAja pada stOtram.
Thus, throughout this stuti, srI Krishna offers his respects to narasimha, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati rudradeva. SrI Krishna even explicitly mentions this in the sAnti parva of mahAbhArata as follows,
nArAyaNAtmako GYeyaH pANDaveya yuge yuge
O Arjuna, know Rudra as 'nArAyaNAtmaka' in every yuga (nArAyaNatmaka = One whose mind is filled with meditation on nArAyaNa in bhakti yOgA, or One whose indweller is nArAyaNa) .
tasmin hi pUjyamAne vai devadeve maheshvare sampUjito bhavetpArtha devo nArAyaNaH prabhuH
It is nArAyaNa, who is well-known as Deva (Possessor of auspicious attributes worthy of worship), PrabhuH (Master of all and hence the only one fit to worship) IN Maheshwara, the Lord of the Devas (pArvati pati rudradeva, who is mahEshwara and devadeva only due to nArAyaNa’s grace), who is worshipped.
ahamAtmA hi lokAnAM vishvAnAM pANDunandana tasmAdAtmAnamevAgre rudraM sampUjayAmyaham yadyahaM nArchayeyaM vai IshAnaM varadaM shivam AtmAnaM nArchayetkashchiditi me bhAvitaM manaH
O Son of Pandu, I am indeed the AtmA, the indweller of the Vedas (lokAnAm) and worlds (vishvAnAm). Therefore, I worship myself first when I supposedly worship Rudra. If I did not worship the inner Self of Rudra also called Ishana, Shiva, the bestower of boons, some would not worship me. This is my opinion.
Alternate meaning for this slOka: O Son of Pandu, I am indeed the AtmA, the indweller of the Vedas (lokAnAm) and worlds (vishvAnAm). Therefore, I worship myself first when I supposedly worship Rudra. If I did not worship the inner Self of Rudra, ie, nArAyaNa who is auspicious (shivam), the supreme controller (Ishana) and bestower of boons (varada), some would not worship me. This is my opinion .
So, he worships the indweller of Rudra to, 1) Adhere to the sAstra, 2) Show people how to perform the correct form of worship, 3) And to exhibit his sousIlya guNam by fulfilling his boon to Rudra.
Before we look at the stuti proper, we also examine what pArvati pati rudradeva said to Krishna after the stuti itself. Shiva says the following:
avadhyastvamajeyashcha mattaH shUratarastathA |
bhavitAsItyavochaM yattattathA na tadanyathA || 2-74-38
You can not be killed, you can not be conquered, you will be more valiant than me. All this will happen as told by me. None will be able to change this.
If Shiva was the supreme deity, no-one would be able to become more valiant than him, even if it was a boon granted to a devotee. One might ask, if the deity is omnipotent, can he not make the boon receiver greater than him? Answer provided by swami kurEsar is that omnipotence means - "doing whatever is possible and whatever exists to be done". The existence of an entity with valor greater than Brahman is impossible and hence, an impossible thing does not exist to be accomplished by omnipotence.
Neither can this be taken as mere flattery as it is the supposed phalan of a boon.
bilvodakeshvaro nAma bhavitAhamihAnagha |
deveshvara tvayAsthApi devasiddhopayAchanaH ||2-74-40
O the one without any sin! O lord of lords! O lord! I will remain here by the name of the lord of bilva and water (bilvodakeshvara) as you installed me. According to me, all requests made from here will become fruitful.
Note that Shiva calls Krishna as Deveshwara! If he really had been the recipient of the stuti, no-one would call his devotee that way.
Shiva will stay with that name and everyone can worship him to get jnAnam about Vishnu. That is what he means by saying "all their requests will be fruitful". Bilva is, as per the purAnAs, also a favorite of Lakshmi and can be offered to Vishnu and it is indeed being offered to srInivAsA at Tirumala. So, one can worship the antaryAmin of shiva with Bilva as well. If one regards shiva as a guru, he can worship shiva directly as a guru with bilva. Note: Shiva is a guru for upAsakAs, following the path of bhakti yOga.
The mode of prathishtai of course, is not shaiva agama, but pAncharAtrA, which allows installation of Lingam if it is done with the right mindset of Shiva as a bhakta of Vishnu. We can see Shiva in many vaishnava temples installed in this manner. The harivamSham mentions that Krishna did not allow anyone into Dwaraka unless they had a mudra. This “mudra” is nothing but shanka-chakra marks on the shoulders as per pAcharAtra sAstras, so we know Krishna was following pAncharAtra agama in this avatArA.
ihasthopoShito vidvAnbhaktimAnmama keshava |
trirAtramIpsitA.NllokAngamiShyati janArdana ||2-74-41
O keshava! O janArdana! The wise person who worships me with devotion, fasting for three nights, will attain the worlds desired by him.
In what manner must the wise person worship shiva? Shiva himself uses the Keshava and Janardhana namas to indicate this. Keshava means "Lord of Brahma and Rudra", Janardhana means Lord of all. So, the wise man who knows the intent of Krishna's stuti to Shiva will worship Shiva for attaining knowledge of Vishnu. That is the intent here.
A look at one final verse spoken by Shiva which shows Krishna’s supremacy:
avadhyA devadevAnAM vareNa brahmaNo.anagha |
mAnuShAntaritastasmAtttvametA~njahi keshava ||2-74-45
O the one without any sin! They (the asurAs) can not be killed by the gods due to a boon given by brahma. But O keshava! As you are a human being, you can kill them.
Note that Shiva is asking Krishna to kill the asurAs. While doing so, he explicitly says that due to the boons of Brahma, the devas (including him) cannot kill the asurAs. Furthermore, he says that Krishna can kill him. Why? Not simply because he is a manuShya. Note that the Shiva uses the name “Keshava”. So, he is saying, “You are Keshava, the Lord of Brahma and Rudra (myself) and hence, you are duty-bound to protect us. You have taken an avatArA in a rUpam resembling manuShya as well to destroy these asurAs.”
Therefore, this incident shows the supremacy of srI Krishna only.
This much explains the verses. Elsewhere, Shiva explictly says that Hari, the Lord of all worlds, the supreme thief (of the jivatma) is actually worshipping a lesser deity like himself (shiva) and is overwhelmed by it. The exact harivamsha quote of this can be provided if needed.
One must also note that throughout this stOtra, bhagavan does not glorify well-known lakshanas of Shiva's body such as matted locks, crescent, cobra around neck, the damaru, the trident, etc (not that even these would have posed a problem anyway). And he does not mention Shiva's chief exploits like tripurAsura vadham, andhakAsura vadham, swallowing hala-hala, etc (although even these incidents were accomplished by Shiva with the grace and assistance of nArAyaNa only). In contrast, most shiva stutis seen in tAmasa purAnAs and shaiva works dwell on such things. That is enough to show that the stuti is about Vishnu.
Lastly, BhagavAn also does not practice humility. He does not say, "I am an inferior, ignorant, so save me, etc" which is seen in most stOtrAs where the author expresses his humility and helplessness towards the deity he is invoking. That is because BhagavAn is praising himself. While Vishnu is fully capable of worshipping himself, he cannot practice humility towards himself!
Let us now look at the stuti proper for more proof.
NOTE: In translating this stuti, I pay obeisances to my teachers.
SRI KRISHNA STUTI - EXPLANATION
rudro devastvaM rudanAdrAvaNAchcha
rorUyamANo drAvaNAchchAtidevaH |
bhaktaM bhaktAnAM vatsalaM vatsalAnAM
kIrtyA yu~NkShveshAdya prabhavAmyantareNa ||2-74-22
Meaning: You (the antaryAmin of pArvati pati rudradeva) are called Rudra, one who sports in srShti leela (deva), as you are he who destroys the disease of samsArA. You are also Rudra as you cause your devotees to shed tears of joy on experiencing your kalyAna guNams such as vAtsalyam (deva). I am the devotee of your (ie, my) devotees and dear to those who are dear to you (ie, myself). Today, I seek refuge in you, who are the ultimate refuge, for attaining fame of sousIlyam (kIrtyA).
From the beginning itself, we see clear proof that the deity invoked by srI krishnA is surrendering to none other than sriman nArAyaNa. Specifically, srI Krishna is praising the antaryAmin of pArvati pati rudra, who is none other than Narasimha, an amsha of Sankarshana.
As I had humbly pointed out in my write-ups on Shri Rudram, the name “Rudra” is a common noun and occurs in the Vishnu sahasranAmA (rudrO bahushirA babhrUr). Krishna here is also using the logic provided by Jaimini in the Brahma sutrAs. The sutrA “sAkshAdpyavirodham jaiminiH” instructs us to address the antaryAmin by the same names as the devata for which he is the antaryAmin. So, the antaryAmin of rudra is addressed here as Rudra and this is a name of Narasimha in the Vedas.
BhagavAn srI krishnA gives two meanings for the word “Rudra”, as follows:
RudanAdrAvaNAchcha = rudaM saMsAraduHkhaM drAvayatIti rudra iti kechit.h as per Bhatta Bhaskara. He is Rudra as he destroys the disease of samsArA.
rorUyamANo drAvaNAchchAtidevaH = rodayati iti rudraH as per srI parAsara bhattar in his bhagavad guna darpaNam. He is Rudra as he makes his devotees shed tears of joy on experiencing his kalyAna guNams.
The name “deva” also means one who sports in the lIla of sRshti as per srI parAsara bhattar in his Vishnu sahasranAma bhAshyam for the name “vAsudevA”. This meaning is appropriate.
The brahma sutrAs state “lokavattu lIla kaivalyam”, ie, sRshti is a sport for sriman nArAyaNa. At the same time, he performs that sport of sRshti to give the jivAs a body, enable them to perform sAdhana and attain moksha. So, he is Rudra, the destroyer of the disease of samsArA. This meaning fits the context.
BhagavAn is the devotee of his devotees. He says “jnAni tu Atmaiva mE mathaM” in the Gita. Swami Nampillai, a stalwart achAryA, says – “BhagavAn follows the path of his devotees, who in turn follow his path”!
He got the name of “yathOkthakAri” or “sOnna vaNNam seydha perumAl” in Kanchipuram because he obeyed Thirumazhisai Azhwar, his devotee.
BhagavAn is also dear to those who are dear to him. He says the jnAnIs are very dear to him. Why are the jnAnIs dear to him? Because he is dear to them!
Madhavan states all this and then performs saranAgati, ie, prapatti, famously known as the nyAsa vidyA of the Upanishad-s to Narasimha, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati. But did he do it right?
SaranAgati requires Akinchanyam, ie, admittance of helplessness to aid oneself and ananyagatitvam, ie, considering only Lakshmi pathi nArAyaNa as the ultimate refuge and no other.
In this slOka, vAsudevA is surrendering to Narasimha, ie, himself. He has shown ananyagatitvam by saying “You (ie, antaryAmin of Rudra) are my ultimate refuge”. But he has not shown Akinchanyam. This is because BhagavAn, who is supremely omniscient and omnipotent can never be called helpless. Therefore, his saranAgati is incomplete. And this itself is proof that he is only surrendering to himself!
Note that saranAgati must be done as perfectly as swami AlavandAr shows by example in his stOtra ratnam,
Na dharmanishto asmi na chaatma vedi Na bhaktimaan tvacharanaaravinde |
Akinchano ananyagatih sharanya! Tvatpaadamoolam sharanam prapadye || (Stotra Ratnam – Sloka 22)
Meaning: BhagavAn! You who are worthy of being sought as a refuge! I am not one who is established in Dharma (karma yOga). I have no knowledge of the Self (jnAna yOga). I do not have the state of incessant meditation on your lotus feet (bhakti yOga). I am without any support. I am resorting to You, as You are the protector (of all persons).
So, Keshava, the Lord of Brahma and Rudra, is performing prapatti to himself, but is unable to express helplessness as swami yAmunAchAryar did.
Now, what is the phalan that bhagavAn seeks for his surrendering to narasimhA. Outwardly, “kIrti” seems to indicate fame and victory. But if we look at swami parAsara bhattar’s vyAkhyAna for the nAma “sat-kIrtiH” in the Vishnu sahasranAmA, he writes,
sauSIlya sattvena asya ati-mahatI kIrtih iti sat-kIrtih.
This suits the context. The guNam of sousIlyam means, “One who descends from his high position and adopts a low position for the sake of his devotees.”
BhagavAn promised he would ask boons from pArvati pati and to fulfill that promise, he is praying to the antaryAmin of pArvati pati. This is a perfect demonstration of his sousIlyam.
So his requested phalan is, “By surrendering to you, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati, let me acquire the fame of being known as sarva sulabhan and one with immense sousIlyam, having descended to the lower level of consenting to ask boons from a lesser deity”!
At the outset, therefore, bhagavAn hopes to become famous as One who pleases his devotees and lowers himself to a level below them. That way, everyone will love this great and generous act of his and marvel at his nature.
grAmyAraNyAnAM tvaM patistvaM pashUnAM
khyAto devaH pashupatiH sarvakarmA |
nAnyastvattaH paramo devadeva
jagatpatiH suravIrArihantA ||2-74-23
Meaning: You are the Pati of those pashUs (brahma jnAnIs who realise the sarIra-sarIri sambandham) who live in villages and forests. Therefore you are known as paShupati, also as Deva (of auspicious qualities worthy of contemplation by such “paShus”) and being their pati (sarIra-sarIri relationship), you perform actions which remove the sorrows of your body (the jivAs), hence you are known as sarvakarmA. There is no-one who is above you as you not only possess the auspicious qualities of the devas, but also possess qualities that they do not possess, hence known as Devadeva. You are the Lord of the Universe (jagathpati) and the slayer of the enemies of devas like PrahlAda (suravIrArihanta).
Having performed prapatti in the best (and incomplete) way he could to himself, Keshava now embarks on a stuti of narasimhA, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati.
Pashupati is a name of narasimhA as per the narasimha tApanIya Upanishad. The brihadAranyaka Upanishad says “yasya prithvi sarIram…yasya atmA sarIram”. The universe and jivAs are the body of Brahman. This means that, just as the body serves the self, it is the nature of the jivAtmA to perform continuous service to Brahman, its master. And such a jivA, a realised jnAni, can be called a paShu, because of his docility and obedience to pati, who is srI Lakshmi narasimhan. Note that Keshava avoids the incident of pArvati pati getting the name “paShupati” during Tripura samhArA from the devas as a result of a boon. This shows that the name paShupati here is used to denote the antaryAmin of pArvati pati only.
These paShus, having no master other than srI Lakshmi narasimha, constantly meditate on his auspicious qualities, signified by the term deva.
This bhagavAn is sarva-karmA. For those paShus who realise they are his body and he is their self, he performs actions that remove their sorrows, as they are his body. The meaning of karma is he who performs actions. The meaning of “sarva” is he who removes the sorrows of his own body (ie, the jivAs) as per srI parAsara bhattar’s vyAkhyAnam for the name “sarva” in the sahasranAmA.
sva sarIra bhUtAnAm asubhamapi srNAti iti sarvah – is the divya vyAkhyAnam of Bhattar for Sarva in sahasranAmA (sarvam sharvas shivas sthAnur).
The antaryAmin of pArvati pati is also known as devadeva which is interpreted by swami rAmAnujar in the Gita when it occurs for Krishna as “One who not only possesses all the auspicious qualities seen in the devas, but also possesses innumerable auspicious qualities NOT present in the devas or anybody else.”
Krishna uses this name to distinguish between pArvati pati and his antaryAmin, as he is addressing the latter. Just as manushyAs are like worms to devas, the devas are like worms to sriman nArAyaNa. That being the case, will he not, in sheer amusement from the loftiness of his position, humor the request of insignificant devas to seek boons from them?
Nammazhwar also says, “Manisarkut tEvar pola tEvarkum tEvAvO”.
He is the Master of the Universe and rescuer of those with deva bhAva (such as prahlAda) from the asurAs. Or, he rescues the devas from asurAs as per his name of “uttaraM” (uttarO gopatir gopta in the sahasranAmA).
bhavAnAdyaH prItidaH prANadashcha |
tasmAddhi tvAmIshvaraM prAhurIshaM
santo vidvAMsaH sarvashAstrArthatajj~nAH ||2-74-24
Meaning: You are the primordial One (bhavAnAdyA). You are bliss and the life (of your devotees). Therefore the knowers of Brahman, who have realised the meanings of all sAstras declare you to be the Isvara, ie, as One who has the supreme rulership of all living beings and capable of doing anything (prAhurIshaM).
“Sarma”, which occurs in the sahasranAma. is the synonym of “Priti”. It is interpreted by bhattar as paramAnanda rUpatvAt.
For prAhurIsham, we take the root IshtE as given by Bhattar that he capable of doing anything. JanardhanA is saying that he (the antaryAmin of pArvati pati, who is himself) is capable of accomplishing astonishing things, even tasks such as seeking boons from lesser deities by praying to the antaryAmin (himself) and thereby giving them fame and respect in the world.
tasmAttvAmAhurbhava ityeva bhUtaM
sarveshvarANAM mahatAmapyudAram || 2-74-25
Meaning: You are the supreme Being (bhUtaM), who prompts the intellect (makes the dharma bhUta jnAnam blossom). You have the jagath (avyakta) as your body, which makes you the Lord of the the unliberated (kshara) and the jivAs who are liberated (akshara). Therefore you are called Bhava. You are the Lord of all beings (because of the above) and are well-known as being generous (udAraH) to your devotees (mahAtmas) having 4 types of goals.
Remember the gita slOka - bhUta bhAvana bhUteSa devadeva jagatpate (Gita 10.15)
Avyakta refers to prakrti. The subalOpanishad (mantra 7) says, “He whose body is Avyakta”. Since he has prakrti as his body and he is the inner self of this prakrti, just as all names that pertain to the body pertain to the Self, he is called avyakta here. The logic of all names for the body also denoting the Self is known as “sAmAnAdhikaraNyam”.
Akshara is the pure form of the jivAs separated from prakrti and hence denotes the liberated ones. The pure self, freed from matter, is imperishable and hence denoted by Akshara. Kshara refers to jivAs from Brahma to a blade of grass who are still associated with prakrti. As the bodies of these jivAs are perishable, ie, modifiable due to transmigration in samsArA, the jivAs inseparably associated with such bodies (due to aprtak siddhi and the logic of sAmAndhikaraNyam as mentioned above) are called Kshara.
The meanings of Avyakta, Akshara and Kshara are as per Gita bhAshya of BhagavAn yatirAjA (Gita bhAshya, 15.16).
bhUta sarvEswara – Lord of all Beings. It is similar to the name “bhUta mahEshwara” which occurs in the Vishnu sahasranAmA. The last line resonates with the gita sloka,
chatur-vidha bhajante mam janah sukritino 'rjuna arto jijnasur artharthi jnani cha bharatarsabha ~ Gita 7.16
He is known as bhUta sarveswara because he is generous (udAraH) and gives them all puruShArthams – One who seeks wealth that is lost (artO), One who seeks new wealth (arthArthi), One who wants knowledge of the pure Self, ie, the jivAtmA (jignyAsu) and One who is a knower of Brahman (jnAni). BhagavAn also refers to these 4 types of devotees as su-kritina, ie, very pious, which is same as “mahatma” used in the slOka.
This should be enough to dispel any doubts that Govinda is praising himself, ie, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati here in this stuti. Nammazhwar also says niruttinAn deiva~ngaLAga ad-deiva nAyakan tAnE (tiruvAimozhi 5.2.8).
rdevAsuraiH sarvabhUtaishcha deva |
stvAM vai sarve tena devAtideva ||2-74-26
Meaning: You (antaryAmin of pArvati pati rudradeva), possessing innumerable auspicious attributes (Deva) have conquered all the devas, asuras and everything that exists. Therefore, the wise call you the Supreme Being (Maheshwara), the creator of the Universe or one who does good deeds for the Universe (Vishwakarma) and as the God of Gods (Devadeva).
By possessing and exhibiting innumerable auspicious guNams, he attracts all jivAs to him. This includes the devas, who meditate on his guNams and even asurAs like shUrpanaka who was attracted by the rUpam of srI rAmA and sisupAla, who despite hating Krishna, meditated on him in that very hate by statements such as “I hate he who has beautiful arms” and so on. He attracts even other beings, as the rAmAyaNa says that when srI rAmA departed for the forest, even plants and trees became sad.
Or, it could mean he conquered all the devas, asurAs and others in battle on various occasions.
pUjyo devaiH pUjyase nityadA vai
shashvachChreyaH kA~NkShibhirvaradAmeyavIrya |
satAmiShTaH sarvabhUtAtmabhAvI ||2-74-27
Meaning: Bestower of Boons (varadA)! One who changes everyone while remaining unchanged OR the valiant One (vIrya)! The devas (wise jnAnIs) worship you constantly by always wishing you auspiciousness. You are well known (due to their worship) as the possessor of jnAnam, Shakti, balam, vIryam, aiswaryam and tejas (BhagavAn), as the One who possesses innumerable unique qualities (devadevaH), as the choice of worship by sAttvikAs and as being the inner self of all living entities (sarvabhUtAntarAtma).
Currently, dAmodara is fulfilling a boon to pArvati pati, so it is appropriate that he refers to the antaryAmin as bestower of boons. And since the antaryAmin is narasimhA, one must remember the boons he gave to prahlAda.
One meaning of vIrya is “He who remains unchanged but changes everyone around him”. When srI rAmA was in Ayodhya, even the trees and plants were happy. When srI rAmA left for the forest, the trees and plants lost their sheen although bhagavAn remained happy!
“deva” here refers to jnAnIs who do not seek any purushArtham from him and instead worship him by saying “May you be well! May auspiciousness reign supreme on you.” How can we wish auspiciousness on bhagavAn who is the source of all auspiciousness? The idea is that these jnAnIs, in their immense love for bhagavAn, forget his supremacy and become afraid something would happen to him. Then, they would start trying to protect him by saying “may you live long”, etc. Such “ajnAnam” which results due to “jnAnam” is the true purushArtham. This was exemplified by Periazhwar in his ThirupallAndu divya prabandham.
In yAdavAbhyudaya, swami vedAnta desikan says that after Kalinga nardhanam, Nandagopa prayed for protection and that made him (Nandagopa) a “paramArtha vedin”. The protection that Nandagopa prayed for is that Krishna be protected from all dangers. In his love for Krishna, Nandagopa did not see that his son subdued Kalinga, rather, he felt afraid something may happen to Krishna and started praying for his well-being!
BhagavAn nArAyaNa becomes famous only because of such great devotees. He is devadeva as mentioned earlier and is the chosen deity for worship by sAttvikas, whose minds are not confused by tAmasa purAnAs, wrong interpretations of sAstra or incidents such as this one of Krishna worshipping the antaryAmin of pArvati pati.
nArAyaNa is sarvabhUtAntarAtma. Isha sarvabhUtAntarAtma apahatapApma divyO deva eko nArAyaNaH – says the subalOpanishad.
bhUmitrayANAM deva yasmAtpratiShThA
punarlokAnAM bhAvanAmeyakIrtiH |
tryambaketi prathamaM tena nAma
tavAprameya tridisheshanAtha ||2-74-28
Meaning: One who repeatedly regenerates the worlds from ills due to his incomprehensible sousIlyam (punarlokAnAm bhAvanAmeyakIrti)! One who is beyond reach of the senses (apramEya)! One whose fame is immeasurable! You are the god (deva) who is the foundation of the three worlds. Therefore, Tryambaka is *first and foremost/primarily* your name.
srI parAshara bhattar interprets the nAmas SambhavO bhAvanO in the sahasranAmA as follows – he manifests (takes avatars) due to his sousIlyam which regenerates (bhAvanO) everyone from ills repeatedly. kIrti explained earlier refers to sousIlyam. Ameya means incomprehensible nature (amEyatma).
The above is the meaning for the words “punarlokAnAm bhAvanAmEyakIrti.
The name “Tryambaka” thus, belongs to nArAyaNa as he is the foundation of the worlds. Note the usage of the words “tryambaketi prathamaM tena nAma”. This means, “The name ‘Tryambaka’, despite being taken by some devas like pArvati pati, is primarily your (ie, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati who is narasimha) name and is only a secondary usage for devas like pArvati pati rudra”.
Achyuta uses the word “prathama” to dispel all confusions and show that he is addressing the antaryAmin. All names belong to nArAyaNa only primarily. The devas have named themselves after his various names based on some minor exploits or characteristics of theirs. All names existed before these devas foR nArAyaNa.
This validates the stand of applying all shruti names to nArAyaNa only. Note that Krishna has shown his intelligence in not saying “Tryambaka, the Three Eyed One”. Though Narasimha is 3 eyed and this name can apply to him in that sense also, it could have caused confusion because pArvati pati, who is standing in front of him, has 3 eyes as well. So, bhagavAn gives an alternate interpretation for the name to dispel all doubts.
sharvaH shatrUNAM shAsanAdaprameya-
stathA bUyaH shAsanAchcheshvareNa |
shabdasyeshAnaH shrIkarArkAgryatejAH ||2-74-29
Meaning: You are sharvA, the destroyer of our sins. You chastise our enemies in incomprehensible ways (shAsaNadapramEya) being the Supreme Chastiser (shAsanAchcheshvarEna). O Supreme Controller as revealed by the veda (shabdasyeshanAH)! One who causes the wealth of kaimkaryam and atma svarUpam to manifest (shrikarA)! One with tejas greater than that of the sun (arkAgryatejAH)! You are all-pervading (sarvavyApi) with auspicious qualities to the brim for the sAttvikas.
Narasimha assumed the form of half man, half lion and without violating the boons of Brahma, accomplished the unbelievable task of killing hiranyakasipu in a way which did not affect the boons. So, the way he gives punishments is incomprehensible to us.
“shrIkara”. Shri refers to wealth of jnAnam, which is nothing but service to bhagavAn nArAyaNa. He himself procures the wealth for us, ie, he is the upAyam as well as the upEyam.
For the asurAs, he appears everywhere, like in a pillar and is frightening to them as a chastiser with ferocious attributes like a half-man, half-lion form. For sAttvikas like prahlAda, he is everywhere like an ever present friend and his kalyAna guNams are ever available to be meditated upon.
saMsaktAnAM nityadA yatkaroShi
shamaM bhrAtR^ivyAnyadvyanaishIH samastAn |
sadbhirdharmaj~naiH kathyase sarvanAthaH ||2-74-30
Meaning: You provide comfort and peace to your devotees like PrahlAda. You punish the asurAs like Hiranyakasipu who oppose you as enemies. Hence you, Deva (who is full of vAtsalyam), are called Shankara, of an undefinable and unknowable nature by logical means (apramEya) who can only be experienced.
Shankara is a name of narasimha as per the narasimha tApanIya Upanishad. The description given by HrishikEsha in this sloka suits narasimhA, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati perfectly.
The meaning of “apramEya” is as per sahasranama bhAshya of srI parAshara bhattar. Certainly, the act of bhagavAn in worshipping himself is indeed apramEyam!
dattaH prahAraH kulishena pUrvaM
taveshAna surarAj~nAtivIrya |
kanThe nailyaM tena te yatpravR^ittaM
tasmAtkhyAtastvaM nIlakaNTheti kalpaH ||2-74-31
Meaning: Long ago, you, ie, pArvati pati Rudra who is your (nArAyaNa’s) body was struck (throttled) by the thunder-bolt like grip (kulishena) of the highly valiant nArAyaNa, who is the Lord of jnAnIs/Nitya SurIs and One who knows all (sUrarAjnAtivIrya). As a result, your neck turned dark-blue/black (kanThe nailyam). Due to that, you, that is to say, pArvati pati who is your body, is known as nilakanTha (and hence, is your vibhUti).
This slOka is different from the rest in that it uses the logic of sAmAnAdhikaraNyam which was mentioned earlier. In this slOka, pundarikAksha addresses the antaryAmin as One who has nIlakaNtha as his body. Since the names of the body denote the self and pArvati pati, being a jivAtma (eko ha vai nArAyaNa asIt, na brahma nEshana…) and having nArAyaNa as his indweller (visnor catma bhagavato bhavaH) and also being the body of nArAyaNa as a consequence of this (yasya atmA sarIram), all the names of pArvati pati apply to the antaryAmin. So, the antaryAmin is addressed here by sAmAnAdhikaraNyam and this also directly means that pArvati pati is the vibhUti of nArAyaNa.
Note the intelligence of Krishna. He has avoided mentioning the swallowing of hala-hala incident. Though even that incident of swallowing poison was done by the grace of nArAyaNa, the incident given in this slOka is more explicit in establishing that pArvati pati is a vibhUti of nArAyaNa.
The mahAbHArata describes the incident of a battle between pArvati pati and rishi nArAyaNa (of the nara-nArAyaNa avataras of bhagavAn) at badarikAshrama. It culminated in nArAyaNa throttling Shiva’s neck until it turned black/dark-blue and he attained the name of SitikaNtha.
nilakaNtha and sitikaNtha can be taken as synonyms to mean “dark-blue/black”. By indicating this incident, Krishna shows that all the attributes of pArvati pati are due to the grace of nArAyaNa, his antaryAmin and that pArvati pati is a vibhUti of nArAyaNa.
“SurarAja” and the quality of omniscience are appropriate descriptions for rishi nArAyaNa avatArA as he preached the inner meanings of sAstra during that avatAram to his sishya and amSa nara.
yalli~NgA~NkaM yachcha loke bhagA~NkaM
sarvaM soma tvaM sthAvaraM ja~NgamaM cha |
prAhurviprAstvAM guNinaM tattvavij~nA-
stathA dhyeyAmambikAM lokadhAtrIm ||2-74-32
Meaning: Soma! You are this entire world consisting of movables and immovable as you possess the characteristic marks divided two-fold (yaLingANkam) and the 6-fold attributes (bhagANkaM) which the sAstras (loke) describe. The wise men who know these tattvas declare you to be possessed of innumerable auspicious attributes and worship Ambika (Lakshmi), the mother of the world (for attaining you).
“loke” refers to sAstra here and not the world. “sthAvaram jaNgamaM” should be enough to denote he is the world, so interpreting “loke” as “world” is redundant.
“Soma” means One who is like nectar or One who is the cause of all. “somapO amritapas sOmaH” says the Vishnu sahasranAmA, so Soma is a name of Vishnu.
By sAmAnAdhikaraNyam, the entire world is Vishnu because he is their self and they constitute his body. He has ubhayalinga of being devoid of blemishes (akhilahEya pratyanIkatvam) and full of auspicious attributes (samastha kalyAna guNAtmakam). He has the six fold attributes of jnAna, bala, vIrya, Shakti, aishwarya and tejas. All this is mercifully explained lucidly by bhagavad bhAshyakArar, swami rAmAnujar in his sri bhAshya.
Ambika is a name of Lakshmi as it is a common noun for mother or uttama strI with all lakshanas. srI Lakshmi narasimhA is known as “Ambika pathi” in the mahAnArAyaNopanishad and as “umApati” in the same Upanishad as well as narasimha tApanIya Upanishad.
vedairgItA sA hi tattvaM prasUtA
yaj~no dIkShANAM yoginAM chAtirUpaH |
nAtyadbhutaM tvatsamaM deva bhUtaM
bhUtam bhavyaM bhavadevAya nAsti ||2-74-33
This is certainly the tattvam (as above) described in the vedas, that you (the antaryAmin of pArvati pati) are the wealth of those who perform sacrifices, initiatory rites and those who meditate and also of extraordinary form. There is no-one who is or will be as wonderful or similar as you who possesses infinite auspicious attributes (deva) in the past, present and future.
“na tE pratIma asti” (Of him, there is no likeness) says shrutI. Nammazhwar also says “ottAr mikkAr ilayAya mAmAyA” (There is nobody like my young and great mAyan, ie, sriman nArAyaNa).
There is nobody like him. pArvati pati is insignificant compared to him. Who else would actually consent to seek boons from an insignificant lesser deity? This is his great guNam of sousIlyam.
ahaM brahmA kapilo yo.apyanantaH
putrAH sarve brahmaNashchAtivIrAH |
tvattaH sarve devadeva prasUtA
evaM sarveshaH kAraNAtmA tvamIDyaH ||2-74-34
Meaning: Myself, Brahma, Kapila, Ananta and all the valiant sons of Brahma such as pArvati pati Rudra (for whom you are the antaryAmin), the sanatkumArAs, the prajApatIs and manus – all of us are sprung of you, who are the God of Gods (devadeva). Thus, you are Lord of all (sarvEsha), the causal self (kAraNAtmA) and praiseworthy.
In the above Harivamsa slOka, Krishna says that he and Ananta were created in addition to the others. How so?
The key word is “kAraNatmA”. Here is the explanation. To understand this slOka, we must first understand a vAkya from the Atharvasiras.
SrI rAmAnujar, in his vedArtha sangraham, quotes the atharvasiras which says, “Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra and Indra are effects. One must rather choose to meditate on the Cause, which is Shambhu.”
Shambhu is interpreted by achAryan in this work as nArAyaNa. The name Shambhu also occurs in the Vishnu sahasranAmA and is a common noun. So, the sruti enjoins meditation on nArAyaNa only.
But why mention Vishnu among the others as effects? Because Vishnu is an avatAra of sriman nArAyaNa in the material world and as such, is included in the category of effects. This does not mean he is limited like the other effects – rather, he is identical to nArAyaNa, the Cause, in all respects as evidenced by Vishnu gAyatri. As per sruti vAkya “ajAyamAno bahuda vijAyatE”, he takes avatArams for sport among the material world and is often mentioned along with lesser deities. The Vishnu Purana also says, “the same janArdhana has become Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva”. Here, Brahma and Shiva are jivAs with nArAyaNa as indweller. Vishnu is verily nArAyaNa himself.
It is mentioned to meditate on the cause only in the context of Brahma Vidya. This does not mean one must not meditate on Vishnu.
Similarly, Ananta, ie, Adi Sesha, despite being a nitya sUri (eternally liberated) is mentioned as created and included in effects because his is also an avatAram in the material world. Both bhagavAn and adi sEsha are born of their will (One to protect, the Other to serve the protector at all times) and not due to karma.
Thus, in this slOka, Krishna addresses the antaryAmin of pArvati pati as “kAranAtma”, ie, the Causal self and includes himself, the avatArA and Adi Sesha, who has also descended by his will, in the category of effects. We use the same logic as the atharvasiras.
In fact, the sloka in question is a direct upabrahmaNam (commentary/explanation) of atharvashiras, it even agrees with the shrutyakShara: The sloka says "sarve devadeva prasUtA" while the shruti says "brahmA, viShNu, rudrEndras tE sarvE samprasUyantE". The shruti also says "kAraNam tu dhyEyaH", which is translated here as "evaM sarveshaH kAraNAtmA tvamIDyaH".
The stalwart scholar Sri U. Ve. Krishnaswamy Iyengar asks us here to note the following explicit statement of Sri Krishna in the Mahabharata:
atharvazirasA caiva nityam AtharvaNA dvijAH
stuvanti satataM ye mAM te 'pi bhAgavatAH smRtAH (14_004_3378 - 14_004_3379)
Meaning: (You must) know that those AtharvaNa brAhmaNas who chant the atharvashiras daily as part of their worship of Me are also bhAgavatas, my devotees.
One must note that pArvati pati is also among the valiant sons of Brahma. Swami Periyavacchan Pillai quotes sruti describing pArvati pati as “brahmaNa putrAya jyEshtAya srEshtAya”, ie, pArvati pati rudradeva is the eldest and most excellent son of Brahma.
This causal self, the antaryAmin nArAyaNa of pArvati pati, is praiseworthy even by Krishna. He and Arjuna indeed went to the milk ocean and praised srI mahA Vishnu as per srimad bhAgavatam. SrI rAmA worshipped srI ranganAtha. So, bhagavAn always praises himself and meditates on his own kalyAna guNams.
This concludes the stuti. As one can see, it addresses only sriman nArAyaNa on the pretext of seeking a boon from pArvati pati rudradeva.
SRI KRISHNA KAILASA YATRA STUTI (PART 2)
BhagavAn composed not one, but two stutis to fulfil the boon to Rudra. This is the second stuti which takes the form of a nAmavali. As usual, BhagavAn addressed all names to the antaryAmin of rudra only, namely, himself.
namaste shitikaNThAya nIlagrIvAya vedhase |
namaste shochiShe astu namaste upavAsine ||3-87-13
Meaning: Salutations to the One of White (Sattvik) Speech and the Black Throated (Narasimha). Salutations to the one who shines (ie, his effulgence scares the asurAs) and One who stays near (his devotees)
The narasimha tApanIya Upanishad refers to narasimhA as nIlalohita, ie, his tongue/eyes/palms are red and throat is black. In this terrifying form, he destroyed hiranyakasipu with blood curdling roars. But the same bhagavAn is also known as one of sweet and sAttvic speech as he assured Prahlada. Or his roars which terrified Hiranyakasipu were very pleasing to Prahlada. “shiti” means white and refers to sattva guNam. “kaNtha” means sound or voice
There is thus, a reason why bhagavAn (and the veda as well) uses the words “nilagrIva” and “sitikaNtha”. The usage of “griva” intends to show that the actual, ie, physical color of the throat is black. The usage of “kaNtha” is to make us understand that this refers to the voice or sound (as opposed to the neck) and therefore, “white” must be metaphorically taken to signify sattva guNam.
Why does KrishNa begin with Narasimha? The sAstras say that Rudra has Narasimha as his antaryAmin as he (pArvati pati) is constantly meditating on Sankarshana (Narasimha is SankarshanAmsam).
bhAskarO dyUti – his effulgence scares the asurAs as per Bhattar’s vyAkhyAnam for this name in the sahasranAmA.
namaste mIDhuShe astu namaste gadine hara |
namaste vishvatanave vR^iShAya vR^iSharUpiNe ||3-87-14
Meaning: Salutations to the One who showers rain ie, bestows us with all purushArthams (mIDhuShe). Salutations to the One who takes away the sickness (of samsArA).Salutations to the One who is praised in all directions, One who gives blessings to his devotees, of the form of righteous actions (vRsha) and One whose form is dharma (vRsharUpinE).
vishvataH –Arjuna praised bhagavAn’s visvarUpa from all sides in the Gita.
vRsha – occurs in sahasranAma in conjunction with dharma. It refers to his actions to destroy the asurAs and save his devotees.
vRsharUpinE – The name “vRshakrt” in the sahasranAmA is synonymous with this. He is the embodiment of dharma (rAmO vigrahavAn dharma:).
amUrtAya cha devAya namaste.astu pinAkine |
namaH kubjAya kUpAya shivAya shivarUpiNe ||3-87-15
Meaning: Salutations to He who owns (ie, has as his body) even the forms that are amUrtIs - panchabhUtas, manas, buddhi, jivAtmA, etc (amUrtAya), who is full of vAtsalyam (deva) (as a result of everything being his body and he adheres in even the impurities). Salutations to the One who has srI vaikunta, which abounds in bliss as his body (pinAkine). Salutations to the (daharAkAsan) in the hole in the inverted heart lotus (kubjAya kUpAya), the conferrer of auspiciousness (shivA), of an auspicious nature himself, ie, he is more auspicious than anything else (shivarUpinE).
amUrtAya – the name occurs as “amUrtimAn” in the sahasranAmA and I have used the explanation given by Bhattar in the meaning above.
deva – Refers to his vAtsalya guNam. He abides in this body and the jagath, tolerating the impurities (refer srI varadarAja panchAsath of srI vedAntAchAryar).
pinAkinE – Not only this jagath, he has srI vaikuntA, which abounds in bliss as his body.
“pinakam” is interpreted as srI vaikunta (nAkham) that abounds/overflows/ever increases in bliss ( pi – payate, pIpeti, pIpyAna). PerumAl has such a blissful srI vaikuntam as his body, so he is pinAkin.
kubjAya kUpAya – “kubjA” refers to the inverted heart lotus and “kUpA” is the hole where sriman nArAyaNa abides. This is as per the nArAyaNa suktam.
shiva - A name occurring in the sahasrAmA. nArAyaNa suktam also says “sAsvatam shivam achyutam”. He is the conferrer of auspiciousness.
"sameghayati yan-nityam sarvArthAn sarvakarmasu |
sivamicchan manushyAnAm tasmAdesha sivah smrtah ||
"One who bestows all that is desired always by all His devotees is
called Siva because of this guNa of His". (mahAbhArata Drona Parva 202).”
namas tuShTAya tuNDAya namas tuTituTAya cha |
namaH shivAya shAntAya girishAya cha te namaH ||3-87-16
Meaning: Salutations to He who is full of happiness at being born (tushTa), One who leads his devotees out of samsArA (by being born, ie, tunDa) and who makes frightening noises (to scare the asurAs, so he is tuTituTa).Of a most agreeable form that causes happiness (shivAya shantAya), who is worthy of stOtrA (girishA).
Tushta – Name occurs in sahasranAmA as “tushta pushta subEkshana:”. As per his own words such as “AtmAnaM manyE dasarathAthmajam”, He loves being born and identifying himself as the son of dasaratha, etc.
tunDa – means leader. This refers to sAdhu paritrAnAm as he leads his devotees out of samsArA.
tuTituTA – A frightening sound that scares the asurAs – vinAshAya ca duskrtAm . BhagavAn is well-known for intimidating his enemies with ferocious noises. His “hum-kAram” rendered Shiva unconscious in the rAmAyaNa during the vishNu-shiva battle as narrated by paraShurAmA. The same “hum-kAram” defeated the Shaki spear of Skanda when fought against the latter during bAnAsura yuddham. His pAnchajanya ghOsham scared the Kauravas. His roars as Narasimha scared Hiranyakasipu. He took an avatAram as a bull during Tripura Samhara and his bellowing scared the TripurAsurAs. Thus, he scares the asurAs and helps his devotees.
namo harAya viprAya namo hariharAya cha |
namo.aghorAya ghorAya ghora-ghora-tarAya cha ||3-87-17
Meaning: Meaning: Salutations to the One who takes away (our ills, thus he is Hara), Who is omniscient (knows our sufferings, thus he is viprA). Salutations to he who has a captivating green complexion (as srI rAmA, so he is hariharA). Salutations to One who has auspicious, terrible and terribly terrible forms as his body (aghorA, ghora, ghora-ghora-tarA).
Hara – He takes away our sufferings.
ViprA – His omniscience. srI rAmA is known to suffer when his devotees suffer and be happy when his devotees are happy. So, he is omniscient enough to understand our plight.
Harihara – The name is broken down as follows. “Hari” is interpreted by Bhattar in the sahasranAmA as pertaining to his green color. “Hara” refers to his nature of being captivating or as one who takes away our gaze (ie, steals our eyes).
iDopahUtam ……. varNaSca me harih SreshThah tasmAd harir-iti smRtah ||
(mahA. SAnti. 343. 39)
"My superior complexion is green, and therefore I am called Hari".
"rUpa audArya guNai: pumsAm drshti citta apahAriNam" - (Sri Rama) attracts the eyes and hearts of beholders by His beauty, generosity, and similar qualities.
Thus, he is Harihara.
Aghora, Ghora, Ghora-Ghora tarA - One who has auspicious, terrible, terribly terrible forms as his body. Besides his own unique divya mangala vigraham, bhagavAn has the entire jagath as his body. The Universe contains many thing and forms that are classed as auspicious, terrible or terribly terrible. So all these forms are his body and he is equated to it by sarIrAtma bhAva and sAmAnAdhikaraNyam.
This occurs in the mahAnArAyaNopanishad as well and has been interpreted this way by srI ranga rAmAnuja muni as follows:
aghorebhyo.atha ghorebhyo ghoraghoratarebhyaH | sarvataH sharvasarvebhyo namaste astu rudraruupebhyaH||
Meaning: O paramAtmA known as Sarva! Obeisance to those auspicious forms of yours (which are your body) that are not terrible, or terrible or terribly terrible. Obeisance to you, who has these forms bestowing good. (~ mahanArAyaNopanishad – 136)
namo.aghaNTAya ghaNTAya namo ghaTighaTAya cha |
namaH shivAya shAntAya girishAya cha te namaH ||3-87-18
Meaning: Salutations to the One who is of the form of the indriyAs (aghaNTa), the objects of enjoyment (ghaNTA) and the body, which is an assemblage of organs (Ghatighata). Salutations to the form of the pure self that is by nature auspicious (Shiva), divested of prakrti (ShAntA) and beyond description (Girisha).
“ghaNTa” means bell in normal cases, but here, it refers to something special. The brihadAraNyaka Upanishad compares the objects of enjoyment to the drum and the indrIyAs to the drum stick. Just as the contact of the stick with the drum makes sound, the contact of indriyAs with the objects of enjoyment results in experience (pain/pleasure).
Here, bhagavAn refers to the same tattvam but uses “ghaNTa”, ie, bell, instead of drum. A bell is also struck with a stick, so the same analogy holds.
ghaNtA – refers to bell, ie, the objects of enjoyment.
aghaNta – that which is not, ie, different from the objects of enjoyment, ie, the indriyAs.
ghaTighaTa - ghaTi refers to pot, ghaTa refers to an assembly. Thus “ghaTighaTa” refers to the body, an assembly of organs. This body is required for the self to experience the object of enjoyment through contact with the indriyAs.
The next three names in this sloka describe the nature of the pure self.
ShivA – self that is auspicious as it is pure and seshabhUtan by nature.
shAntA – peaceful, ie, of the nature of knowledge-bliss when divested of prakrti which causes attachments.
girisha – “giri” refers to speech, “isha” means that the jivA rules over speech, ie, “girisha” means beyond speech. BhagavAn refers to the individual self as something wondrous in the Gita as well.
He has both the individual selves and their bodies as his body. So, he is equated to both here. This sloka is the same as that of azhwar’s observation – “adiyEn ullAn, udal ullAn”.
namo virUparUpAya purAya purahAriNe |
nama AdyAya bIjAya shuchaye.aShTasvarUpiNe ||3-87-19
Meaning: Salutations to the One who is of the form of various forms, ie, chit and achit as his bodies (virUparUpA), bodies (purA) and the destroyer of the bodies (purahArinE). Salutations to the ancient (AdyA), the support or origin of all naras (bijAya), undefiled by prakrti, ie, its nature is pure (shuchayE), of the form characterised by 8-fold qualities beginning with apahatapApma (ashtasvarUpinE).
virUparUpa – He has the varied achit and chit forms seen in the universe as his body.
purA – Therefore, he is the indweller of the bodies assumed by jivAs due to karma as well.
purahArinE – And thus, he is the destroyer of those bodies as he gives mukti.
namaH pinAkahastAya namaH shUlAsidhAriNe |
namaH khaTvA~Nga-hastAya namaste kR^ittivAsase ||3-87-20
Meaning: Salutations to the bestower of srI vaikuntA (moksha) that abounds in bliss, salutations to the sustainer (jivAtma) of death (ie, samsArA, so the jivAtma is shUlasidhArI). Salutations to He who holds the staff (khaTvA~Nga-hastA), ie, administers the rules of dharma to punish the wicked and bring protection and happiness to the world. Salutations to He (jivAtmA) who abides in skins, ie, the body (and requires protection).
pinAkahasta – refers to paramAtma. He bestows (hasta) srI vaikuntam (nAkha) that abounds (pi) in bliss. Previously, the name “pinAkin” was used to show that he has the blissful srI vaikuntA as his body. Now, the usage of “pinAkahasta” shows that he bestows that blissful srI vaikuntA to the jivAs.
shUlasidhAriNe – refers to the jivAtma. The jivAtma sustains (dhArin) the samsArA that is known as “death” (shUla) since it is a cycle of births and deaths. It is because of baddha jivAs that samsAra mandalam exists.
khatvAnga hastA – Synonymous to the name “Danda” in sahasranAma – khatvANga hastA. It can be staff of a sanyasi or a symbol of power to punish. Bhattar takes the latter interpretation in his bhAshyam for this name, so adiyEn is following his interpretation here.
kRttivAsasE – wearing a garment of skins. The body, made of skin and hide is like a dress for the jivAtmA.
namaste devadevAya nama AkAsha-mUrtaye |
harAya hari-rUpAya namaste tigmatejase ||3-87-21
Meaning: Salutations to the One who is the god of gods (devadeva), ie, paramAtmA (the eternal, primal One, beyond samsArA). Salutations to the One (the jivAtmA) has the form of pancha bhUtAs beginning with AkAsha as his body (AkAshamUrthi). Salutations to One who takes away our pApams (Hara) and whose nature is that of removing the distress of his devotees by becoming the means (HarirUpa). Salutations to One whose radiance is scorching the asurAs (tigmatEjasE).
Devadeva - denotes his status as the Lord of all devas, who is beyond samsArA, unborn, ancient and eternal. So it is said:
…The lotus-eyed God of gods, the eternal, abides as the three worlds ... Hari who is beyond thought, abides thus. Madhusudana is there alone' (mahAbhAratA, vana parvA, 88.24-28).
AkAshamUrthy – Even if mentioned alone, “AkAsha” implies all panchabhUtas in general beginning with AkAsha, vAyu, etc and refers to the body of the jivAtmA made of these elements.
HarAya– Hara refers to taking away our sins.
HarirUpA – Why does he take away our sins? Because his essential nature (rUpa) is “hari”, which is to remove the distress of his devotees. In other words, his essential nature is to be the supreme means for the jIvAtma. He is the eternal dharma.
tigmatejas – He removes the distress of his devotees (paritrANAya sAdhunAm) by acting in violence towards the asurAs (viNAshAya ca duskrtAm). He is “bhAskarO-dyUti” – he has scorching radiance which scatters the asurAs
bhaktapriyAya bhaktAya bhaktAnAM varadAyine |
namo.abhramUrtaye deva jagan-mUrtidharAya cha ||3-87-22
Meaning: One who is the beloved of his devotees (bhaktapriyA), One who is the devotee of his devotees (bhaktA), One who bestows all purushArthams to his devotees (bhaktAnAm varadAyI). Salutations to the One with the form with a configuration like a thundercloud signifying his vAtsalya guNa (abhramUrti deva) and the One who sustains the forms constituting the Universe, ie, the baddha jivAs (jagan mUrti dharAya).
abhramUrti – A form like that of a thundercloud.
Deva – Refers to his vAtsalya guNam.
With a form like a thundercloud, which signifies his vAtsalya guNam, he creates, sustains and destroys the Universe. Nammazhwar also says – manner ulagam padaitha em mugil vaNNanE (thiruvAimozhi 2.2.1) that he creates the jagath with a cloud colored form.
jagan mUrthy dharA - The baddha jivAs fill up the Universe and hence they are referred to as “jagan mUrthy”, the forms constituting the Universe. Despite their transgressions which evoke his anger, It is due to his vAtsalyam that the jivAs still exist. Without him as their self, they have no existence just as a body is burnt to ashes without the self. This is confirmed by sruti passages such as:
“He who knows Brahman exists. He who does not know Brahman, does not exist”.
“Earth is his body, the jivAtmA is his body.”
“By knowing which everything is known.”
namash-chandrAya devAya sUryAya cha namo namaH |
namaH pradhAna-devAya bhUtAnAM-pataye namaH ||3-87-23
Meaning: Salutations to He who delights his devotees who are scorched by samsArA with his kalyAna guNams (chandrA) and Salutations to the One who moves like the wind (to save his devotees, so he is sUryaH). Salutations to the foremost god (pradhAna deva) and Salutations to the master of all beings (bhUtAnAm pati).
Chandra - The name “ChandrAmso” occurs in the sahasranAmA and adiyEn used the meaning given by Bhattar.
sUryaH - The name “sUryaH” also occurs in sahasranAmA in the context of adi vahikAs. Bhattar gives the interpretation - vAyuH sadA sarati yasmAt sUryaH.
pradhAna dEva - He is the foremost god (adi mUlam as he responded to GajendrAzhwan) and the master of all beings. So, it is appropriate for him to do the things signified by the Chandra and sUrya nAmams.
bhUtAnAm pati – As the Lord of all Beings, he is acknowledged to be so by all his devotees.
karAlAya cha muNDAya vikR^itAya kapardine |
ajAya cha namastubhyaM bhUtabhAvanabhAvana ||3-87-24
Meaning: One who has a gaping mouth with terrible teeth (karAlA), One who is clean shaven as Buddha (muNDA), One who is strange ie, incomprehensible to the ajnAnIs/kuDrshtIs (vikRitA), One with matted locks as srI rAmA (Kapardin). Salutations to one who is not born (by karma; aja), to the One who is the creator and regenerator of all beings (by being born due to his will; bhUtabhAvanabhAvana).
Each of the first four names shows the ways by which he deals with the asurAs. The previous sloka talked about devotees so this now talks about asurAs.
karAlA - Possessing a gaping mouth and terrible teeth in his vishvarUpa form or as Narasimha with huge teeth, he chews the asurAs such as hiranyakasipu and the kauravas and eliminates them
munDa - With a shaved head as Buddha, he misleads the asurAs
vikRta - To those who possess no knowledge of the sAdhaNa to attain him, he appears strange and distant or even non-existent. The ajnAnIs and kuDrshtIs are of an Asuric svabhAva as well.
Kapardin - Wearing matted locks as srI rAmA, he went to the forest to protect the rishis, to fulfil the prayers of the devas and destroyed the rakshasas in direct combat. That srI rAmA is jaTadhArin (wearer of matted locks) is mentioned many times in the rAmAyaNa, one such pramAnam being as follows:
niriikShya sa muhuurtam tu dadarsha bharato gurum |
uTaje raamam aasiinaam jaTaa maNDala dhaariNam || 2-99-25
niriikSya= looking around; muhuurtam= for a moment; saH bharataH= that Bharata; dadarsha= beheld; gurm= his elder brother; raamam= Rama; aasiinam= seated; uTaje= in the hut; jaTaamaN^Dala dhaariNam= wearing matted locks.
Looking around for a moment, Bharata beheld his elder brother, Rama himself seated in the hut, wearing matted locks.
Aja – Not born out of karma.
bhUtabhAvanabhAvana - These next few names are interpreted in light of “sambhavO bhAvanO” occurring in the sahasranAma – He is born repeatedly of his own will and regenerates the jivAs of all ills – this is the interpretation of Bhattar.
bhUta – beings, bhAvana – creator (bhUta bhAvana bhUtEsa – Gita 10.15), bhAvana – regenerates the jivAs (sambhavO bhAvaNa – sahasranAma bhAshyam).
amo.astu harikeshAya pi~NgalAya namo namaH |
namaste.abhIShuhastAya bhIrubhIruharAya cha ||3-87-25
Meaning: Salutations to the One who has a golden mane as Narasimha (harikEsha) and Salutations to the One who is golden hued due to the presence of srI mahAlakshmi (pin~galA). Salutations to the One who bestowes fearlessness (ie, removes the fear of not attaining him by demonstrating his soulabhyam; abhIshuhasta) and One who takes away our timidity (in approaching him; by virtue of sousIlyam; bhIrubhIruhara).
“namO namaH” is a special salutation directed with reverence to pirAtti in union with perumAl, signified by the term “piNgalA”. Their mithunam is saluted.
harAya bhItirUpAya ghorANAM-bhItidAyine |
namo dakSha-makhaghnAya bhaga-netrApahAriNe ||3-87-26
Meaning: Of the form of taking away fear (of him; for those who follow sAstra; harAya bhItirUpAya) and who instills fear in terrible ways (for those who violate sAstras; ghorANAm bhItidAyinE). Salutations to One who removes the actions of the skilled (indriyAs; dakshamakhAgnA) and takes the eyes of the inherited share (ie, removes the pleasure/pain from experience of the objects of enjoyment; bhaga-nEtrApahArinE).
First two names are reminiscent of “bhayakrt, bhayanAshaNa” in the sahasranAmA. As always, the meanings given by Bhattar fit the context.
Daksha makhAgnA – makhagna refers to killing sacrifice, ie, he is the remover of our actions signified by sacrifice (makhAgna) that are performed by the skilled indriyAs (daksha). Since “daksha” refers to skilled or clever, it means the indrIyAs which are competent to sway the jivAtmA.
bhaganEtrApahArinE - Bhaga is the inherited share of the sacrifice, ie, the experience of pain or pleasure from the objects of enjoyment due to contact with the indrIyas. Removing the 2 eyes means destroying the pain/pleasure experiences of the jivAtma.
One can ascribe these two names to the jivAtmA as well if he has vairAgyam. But since paramAtmA is the doer of all actions and it is by his grace that the jivA attains vairAgyam, it can be ascribed to bhagavAn as well.
umApate namastubhyaM kailAsa-nilayAya cha |
AdidevAya devAya bhavAya bhavarUpiNe ||3-87-27
Meaning: Salutations to Narasimha, the Lord of Fame (umApati) and whose residence (form or abode) is crystalline or white, ie, sAttvic (KailAsa nilayA). (He is) The cause of all Gods and who subjugates them by his splendour (AdidevA), the One with auspicious attributes (DevA), the One from whom all effects emerge (bhavA), the One who has Bhava (Shiva) as his body (bhavarUpinE).
He possesses the fame (uma) of bestowing brahmAnandam. SrI perukkaranai swami interprets “yashas” as the fame to bestow brahmAnandam, so adiyEn used that interpretation.
“namO hiranyabAhavE umApatayE ambikApatayE” – mahAnArAyaNa Upanishad describes sriman nArAyaNa in his form as Narasimha by the name of umApati. So does the narasimha tApanIya Upanishad.
kailAsa nilaya – kailAsa is a variant of kElasa and refers to crystal. nilayA – he abides in that crystalline form.
The form of the Lord which is like crystal. “Suddha Spatika maNI bhUbhruth PrathibhaDam” as per swami desikan – ie, his body looks like a hill of pure white crystal, signifying that it is jnAnAndamaya, aprAkrtam and suddha sattvam, hence also subhAshrayam.
Alternatively, “kailAsa nilaya” refers to his residence in srI vaikuntha which is of the nature of “crystal” in that it is pure and suddha sattva in nature. Thus, “kailAsa” is the name of the supreme abode. “nArasimhah vapuH srimAn” – he resides as Narasimha in that pure abode.
Adideva – Bhattar vyAkhyAna for adidevO mahAdevO in the sahasranAmA has been used here. As Narasimha, he subjugated Rudra who appeared as Sarabha and terrified the gods themselves.
bhavA – He who is Narasimha is the cause of the gods.
bhavarUpiNE – He has Shiva as his body. “Bhava” is the name of Shiva as he produces knowledge of Brahman. Narasimha is the inner controller of that Bhava and empowers the latter with this attribute.
namaH kapAlahastAya namo.aja-mathanAya cha |
tryambakAya namastubhyaM tryakShAya cha shivAya cha ||3-87-28
Meaning: Salutations to (Narasimha) the ever-vigilant protector of Brahma (kapAlahasta) and to the destroyer of ignorance as Sankarshana (aja-mathanA). One who is the foundation of the three worlds (Tryambaka), One who has three eyes as Narasimha (and hence removes the tApatrayam; TryAksha) and who confers auspiciousness this way (to the three worlds; shivA).
kapAlahasta – split as kaH (Brahma), pAla (protector), hasta – ever ready (to protect). Hasta must be interpreted metaphorically as ever ready. The Lord killed Hiranyakasipu without violating the boons of Brahma and thereby protected the authority of Brahma.
aja - “ja” means light, so “aja” means ignorance. . In that form as Narasimha, he is verily Sankarshana, the vyUha with the attributes of jnAna and balam, who destroys ignorance.
“yo brahmaNam vidadhati pUrvam…saraNam aham prapadyE” – the svetAsvatArA Upanishad performs prapatti to bhagavAn this way.
As he is the foundation of the three worlds, he possesses three eyes as Narasimha to remove the tApatrayam. This is stated in srI kAmAshikAshtakam by srI nigamAntha mahA desikan as follows:
Thapane indhwagni nayana ThapAn apachinothu na,
ThapanIyas rahasyanAm sara Kama shikhA hari
This kAmAshika Hari, who is the essence of the narasimha tApanIya Upanishad, will remove our tApatrayam (three-fold sufferings) by his three eyes (Sun, Moon, Agni). (~kAmAshikAshtakam).
varadAya vareNyAya namaste chandrashekhara |
nama idhmAya haviShe dhruvAya cha kR^ishAya cha ||3-87-29
Meaning: The grantor of vaidika purushArthams (varadA), the most desirable (of purushArthams; vareNya), the One who shines brilliantly at the peak (of the vedAntA; thus he is ChandrashekarA). Salutations to One who makes my sacrifice (sAdhaNa) steady/permanent (idhmAya haviShe dhruvA) and One who is of the form of ploughing (ie, the upAyam; kRishA).
ChandrasekharA – “Chandra” refers to brilliant lustre. “Sekharam” is the peak. Thus, he is sruti sirasI vidiptE (luminous at the peak of sruti) as stated by bhagavad bhAshyakArar in the srI bhAshya mangala sloka.
Dhruva – Bhattar interprets this name in sahasranAma as follows – he made a permanent abode for dhruva, so he is everywhere and makes anywhere permanent like sri vaikuntam. He is stationary or fixed.
This sloka says that bhagavAn, being the goal of vedAntA, is thus the bestower of all purushArthams for aishwaryArtIs and kaivalyArtIs. In addition, he himself is the greatest purushArtham for the jnAnIs. The jnAnIs are two-fold, ie, the upAsakas (signified by idhmAya haviShe dhruvAya) and prapanns (signified by kRishA). Thus, bhakti and prapatti are the two ways prescribed by the SastrAs to attain this ChandrasEkharan.
namaste shaktiyuktAya nAgapAshapriyAya cha |
virUpAya surUpAya madya-pAna-priyAya cha ||3-87-30
Meaning: Salutations to One who is endowed with immense power (Sakti yuktA), who is fond of (ie, resides in) the coils of Adi Sesha (ie, he reclines in the milk ocean; nAgapAshapriyA). Of variegated forms (prakrti; virUpa) and knowledge forms (the self; surUpa), ie, prakrti and jivAs which are his body), fond of honey (ie, the jivAtma that is food for Brahman and prakrti which is used for sport; madhupAnapriyA).
SaktiyuktA – This refers to the name “mahAsaktiH” in the sahasranAmA – bhattar says that he possesses immense power as he is the nimitta and upAdana kAraNa.
nAga pAsha priyA - BhagavAn, lying on Adi Sesha in the milk ocean, creates the universe beginning with Brahma. So, the being in the milk ocean, who loves the coils of Adi Sesha as his bed, is referred to here as the creator.
virUpa – refers to prakrti, which has manifold forms with varying proportions of sattva, rajas and tamas.
surUpa – refers to intelligence and hence is the jivAtmA which is jnAnAnanda mayam.
He is both these as they are his body. And because of sarira-sarIri sambandham, both these are his property and exist for his pleasure, hence they are termed madhu pAnam and he is madhu pAna priya.
shmashAna-rataye nityaM jaya-shabda-priyAya cha |
khara-priyAya kharvAya kharAya khara-rUpiNe ||3-87-31
Meaning: One who abides in the crematorium (samsArA) permanently and who loves mangalAsAsaNams of pallAndu (signified by Jaya sabdam). One who loves to hurt (the wicked; kharapriyA), who is imperfect (in administering punishments to his devotees or acknowledging the faults of his devotees; kharvA), who is sharp (in removing the sins of his devotees; kharA) and of a dense form (ie, inscrutable; khararUpinE).
A crematorium is the place of death and hence, samsArA, which is often known as “mrtyu” and is the place of deaths, is a crematorium. He stays here in his vyUha, vibhava, antaryAmin and archa forms permanently. The purpose of his residence here is to hear his devotees praise him with words like “pallAndu”, “tOtrom” or “jaya” (which are synonyms as per swami periyavAcchan pillai’s vyAkhyAnam on thirupallAndu). And hearing these praises, he destroys the obstacles that impede his devotees and is ignorant to their faults.
Khara – hurtful, sharp, dense. Kharva – Imperfect.
Khara-priyA – The name “naikasRngaH” means He has several devices to bring about the fall of his enemies as interpreted by Bhattar in the sahasranAmA. “Khara” means to hurt.
Kharva – He is imperfect as he is ignorant of the faults of his devotees.
kharA- Refers to the name KuntaH in the sahasranAmA (as per one reading) – One who is like the sharp spear in removing the sins of his devotees (nin kayil vEl poRRi ~ ThiruppAvai). “Khara” means to be sharp.
Khara-rUpinE – “Khara” means dense and hence, this name implies that he is of an inscrutable nature. He is inscrutable as despite being supreme, he still appears helpless and ignorant in vibhava and archa forms at times and requires mangalAsAsanams like “may you live long” (despite being beyond death). His actions in being blind to the doShams of his devotees and killing the asurAs are also inscrutable. “AmEyatma” and “ApramEya” in the sahasranAmA describe this inscrutable nature of his.
bhadra-priyAya bhadrAya bhadra-rUpa-dharAya cha |
virUpAya surUpAya mahAghorAya te namaH ||3-87-32
Meaning: One who loves all good things (ie, stava, stOtrA, adherence to sAstra, etc; bhadra-priyA), One who is all good things and who sustains in a good way (ie, he shines and makes everyone shine; bhadrA). Salutations to the One of unnatural (ie, very odd combination of man and lion) form (virUpA), of a beautiful form (despite being odd; surUpa), highly venerable (ie, worthy of meditation – subhAshraya; mahAghorA).
This is a description of Narasimha, the antaryAmin of pArvati pati, as per the mantra rAja pada stOtrA.
yasmAth bhadro bUtva sarvadA bhadram dadAti
rocano rocamAna: Sobana: SobamAna: kalyANa:|
bhadram karNebhi SruNuyAma devA bhadram paSyemAkshabhiryajatrA:|
sthirangaistushTuvAmsastanUbhir-vyasema devahitam yadAyu:|
tasmaducyate bhadramiti|| (~mantra rAja pada stOtra).
virUpA – Very odd appearance. Bhattar says in the sahasranAma bhAshya for “nArasimha vapuH srImAn:” – His form as a half-man, half-lion was very odd and mismatched.
surUpA – Bhattar adds - And yet, that odd form was so beautiful that no-one would want to look at an ordinary man or an ordinary lion again after seeing him!
ghorA – means venerable.
ghaNTAya ghaNTabhUShAya ghaNTa-bhUShaNa-bhUShiNe |
tIvrAya tIvra-rUpAya tIvra-rUpa-priyAya cha ||3-87-33
Meaning: One who shines (ghaNTa), Who is a shining ornament (ie, he makes everything shine by his luster; ghaNTabhUShA), who wears shining ornaments (ghaNTabhUShaNabhUShiNe). One who is strong (tIvrA) , of a fierce form (tIvra-rUpA), who loves the self that is knowledge by nature (like prahlAda; tIvra-rUpa priyA).
The first part (ghaNtAya…) is also as per the above mantra rAja pada stOtram (Sobana: SobamAna: kalyANa). The Upanishads call Narasimha as “hiranyabAhavE”, ie, One whose arms are decorated with golden ornaments.
ghaNTati – ghaNT.
tIvra, tIvra rUpA - This part describes his strength and fierce nature as Narasimha. He is “bhIshanam” as per the mantra rAja pada stOtrA.
tIvrarUpapriyA – Strength is a metaphor for knowledge. “tIvra-rUpA” refers to the jivAtma of the nature of knowledge.
nagnAya nagna-rUpAya nagna-rUpa-priyAya cha |
bhUtAvAsa namastubhyaM sarvAvAsa namo namaH ||3-87-34
Meaning: One who is naked (as Buddha; nagna), One who is of a barren nature (for the asurAs; nagna rUpA), One who loves to appear new (for his devotees ie, his qualities keep renewing and seeming ever fresh for his devotees; nagna rUpa priyA). Salutations to the One in whom all beings reside (bhUtAvAsa), One who is the indispensable support for his devotees (sarvAvAsa).
Nagna - “The naked One” refers to his Buddha avatArA as follows:
tato digambaro muNDo barhi-patra-dharo dvija |
mAyA moho'surAn SlakshNam idam vacanam abravIt ||
(~ VishNu PurAnA 18.2)
"Approaching the daitya-s engaged in ascetic penances, He approached them in the semblance of a naked mendicant, with his head shaven, and carrying a bunch of peacock's feathers, and addressed them in gentle accents thus.”
Nagna rUpA - He is barren for the asurAs as they either are disallowed from comprehending his glories, do not receive any benefits from him or themselves declare him to be very distant or devoid of qualities, form or even existence.
nagna-rUpa-priya – he loves to appear in newer forms and showing newer qualities to his devotees. “Appodhaikappodhu en ArAvamudhamE” – says Nammazhwar.
bhUtAvAso, sarvAsunilayA are names that occur in sahasranAma and they match the names “bhUtavAsa, sarvAvAsa” in the sahasranAmA. I have used the meanings given by Bhattar for these names here.
namaH sarvAtmane tubhyam namaste bhUtidAyaka |
namaste vAmadevAya mahAdevAya te namaH ||3-87-35
Meaning: Salutations to One who is omnipresent (sarvAtmA). Salutations to One who bestows existence (bhUtidAyaka). Salutations to One who is auspicious (vAmdEvA). Salutations to One who being superior to all the Gods, sports with them, ie, he gives us the means to reach him and the lIla is that he is amused when we do not use this means to reach him (mahAdEvA).
bhUti – existence. By being omnipresent as the inner self of all, he makes everything exist.
mahAdEvA – Bhattar interprets this name in the sahasranAmA as one who is greater than the gods, to whom the gods are playthings, who gives the means to reach him to everyone and becomes amused when they do not use it to reach him!
kA nu vAk-stuti-rUpA te ko nu stotuM prashaknuyAt |
kasya vA sphurate jihvA stutau stutimatAM vara ||3-87-36
Meaning: Who can praise him sufficiently with words? Who knows how to praise him in the choicest manner?
Obviously, srI krishNa, the speaker, is also not qualified to praise himself completely! As his qualities are infinite, even he himself cannot praise himself fully.
kShamasva bhagavan-deva bhakto.ahaM trAhi mAM hara |
sarvAtman-sarvabhUtesha trAhi mAM satatam hara||3-87-37
Meaning: One who possesses auspicious qualities and hence worthy of place! Help me, a devotee to praise you adequately as you are One who captivates me by his guNams! As you are omnipresent and the Lord of all beings (including me, as I am an avatAra and you are the avatArin), help me to praise you continuously, as you are the One who takes away our gaze by your sheer beauty.
BhagavAn has worshipped himself many times. SrI rAmA worshipped srI ranganAtha and srI Krishna worshipped srI mahAvishnu in the milk ocean as well as this current stuti which is addressed to the antaryAmin of pArvati pati. Thus, he is his own devotee certainly and addresses himself here as such. He needs his own help to praise himself, as Arjuna says “you know yourself by yourself”. He is thus, self-established.
He, the avatArA, is included in the effects of the avatArin, the cause, and as such, he refers to the antaryAmin as the Lord of all beings, including himself.
Hara – he takes away our gaze by his sheer beauty.
rakSha deva jagannAtha lokAn sarvAtmanA hara |
trAhi bhaktAn sadA deva bhaktapriya sadA hara ||3-87-38
Meaning: You are One who protects everyone by virtue of his vAtsalyam, as you are the Lord of the Universe (and everything is your property). As you are present everywhere in the sAstra (ie, you are the One praised by all the sAstras), please remove the ignorance of the jivAs (and give them knowledge of you). Help all your devotees always as you possess the effulgence to scatter the asurAs. You are ever loved by your devotees as you destroy their sins and thereby give them the bliss of eternal service in sri vaikunta.
The name bhaskarO dyuti is interpreted by Bhattar in the sahasranAmA as One who possesses effulgence to scatter the asuras.
The first “hara” refers to removal of ignorance of jivAs. The second “hara” refers to destruction of the sins of his devotees (thereby giving them moksha).
Note that bhagavAN does not say “help me” here. Since he does not require destruction of sins or ignorance (possessing none), obviously he doesn’t ask for help here. He only wants help to praise himself adequately!
Thus, this beautiful stuti is authored by bhagavAn for himself only. One can note that if we interpret this stuti at a face value to pArvati pati, none of the names indicate any form of paratvam. Even names like jagannatha (applied in a sense to indicate Rudra as a great lord managing the affairs of the universe) and sarvatma (whose mind, ie, intellect or dharma bhUta jnAnA denoted by “atma” pervades everywhere) do not indicate paratvam.
But the intention of KrishNa is to praise himself here and hence, this interpretation best suits the stuti.